Despite all the advances of modern technology, coal is still a major fuel source for many communities and industries. The United States and China are two major countries that still rely heavily on coal to produce electricity, as well as for industrial uses. While steps are being taken to make coal burn cleaner and more environmentally friendly, there are still the byproducts that come with its use. One of the most common end results is the ash it produces, which in many places is accumulating faster than it can be disposed of. The picture to the right, courtesy of the United States Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration, shows coal ash particles at 2000X magnification.Read More
Heyl & Patterson Blog
A pilot plant is a small-scale industrial plant in which problems can be identified and solved before the corresponding full-scale facility is built. In terms of thermal processing, such a testing ground is a basic laboratory that uses stock process equipment to provide valuable data for the design of a larger version, so that any anomalies in the process can be worked out before the full-scale plant is constructed. Scientific data about reactions, material properties and even corrosiveness may be gathered, and it helps to predict the behavior of a process. Plant designers use data from the pilot facility to refine their design of the production scale facility. When bulk materials must be dried as a part of the process, a fluid bed dryer is often a key component.Read More
Farmers are responsible for nearly every morsel of food we see on our tables each day. Whether it's crops of grains, fruits and vegetables, or feed for the animals that provide us with meat and dairy products, ensuring that growers are able to get the best possible fertilizer is not just in their best interest, but everyone's. Fertilizer dryers come into play in order to get higher yields, and to understand why, it is necessary to first take a brief look into what fertilizer does and its important role in our lives.
Potash is a mined salt that contains potassium as a primary ingredient. Its formation is the result of the evaporation of bodies of water over hundreds of thousands of years, leaving potassium in their wake. The substance was then buried deep in soil hundreds of feet under the ground, and was originally discovered during the oil-drilling process in Saskatchewan, where the largest potash reserves are located to this day.
A tailings pond is a temporary storage area for the leftover by-product materials from oil sands, shale gas and coal ash operations, and is often a discontinued mine pit that has been re-engineered with a dam and dyke system. The contents of the pond is a slurry, with large volumes of water, sand, clay, residual hydrocarbons, heavy metals, naphtha diluents and naphthenic acids, which are known as tailings. The various materials settle to different depths, but they can all be dredged and dried to reduce their volume and eliminate moisture.
To reach gas that was previously thought to be unreachable, pressure is used to fracture or "frac" rock formations deep underground to allow a better flow of gas through a well. When the pressure is removed, the fracture closes back up, which dramatically diminishes its effectiveness. Frac sand is pumped into the well with a mix of water and chemicals during the fracturing operation. The sand will remain in the fracture when the pressure is removed, keeping the fracture propped open and allowing the gas to continue to flow through the well.
The screw press was first invented by the Romans, and was primarily used for wine and olive oil production. Johannes Gutenberg later used one in his printing press in the mid-15th Century. His press was basically a modified metal version of the wooden machines used for squeezing grapes and olives. Therefore, the "press" in the printing and publishing industry shares its origin with industrial screw presses because both machines press with a screw mechanism.